Click here to close now.

Welcome!

OpenStack Journal Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Carmen Gonzalez, AppDynamics Blog

Related Topics: Open Source, Java, Linux, Eclipse, Apache, OpenStack Journal

Open Source: Article

The Science and Art of Open Source Software License Management

Protect your organization from risk while ensuring continuous innovation

The industrial revolution continues - starting with the steam engines of the 18th century, continuing with large-scale steel production, oil exploitation, electrical and photographic innovations of the 19th century, and moving on to the transportation, communications, computation and electronics of the 20th century. It is still early in the 21st century, but we can safely say software has become the engine that feeds the industrial, economic, medical, and gradually the political issues of our existence. The only way to satisfy the demand for the volume and complexity of the software that is needed to keep our world moving is to maximally share and reuse code within and across application domains.

Open Source Software (OSS) is the epitome of code reuse, enabling complex applications to be realized rapidly, economically and safely. Probably the largest collaborative endeavor in human kind to date, open source feeds on itself. Independent studies have converged on the fact that open source is everywhere, and depending on the source of the study, 80-100% of all software organizations now use open source software in their products or operations.

There is an implicit understanding that good developers do not write code from scratch any more. Rather, they can adapt a piece of existing code to furnish a desired function. Use of off-the-shelf code such as OSS brings the usual due diligence and precautions associated with deployment of any third-party content within an organization. The pedigree of the code, its ownership attributes, and the rules around the use of open source code (typically captured in a license document) govern its introduction within an organization and its suitability for an end-target use.

Open source software brings with it an unusual set of ownership issues. Unlike other commodities, open source code can be brought into an organization freely. While anything that is purchased in a transaction has implied ownership, ownership and usage of OSS can be confusing to many developers or organizations. Generally, the copyright ownership of OSS always stays with the creator of the open source code. The OSS copyright owner creates and communicates a license that explicitly sets out the rules governing the use of that open source software.

Continuous Versus One-Time OSS Assessment
Detecting and complying with OSS code in a software project has become an important part of a quality and governance process in organizations that create or consume software.

Product quality considerations and standards require that a recorded knowledge of all the third-party components within a product be maintained at all times. These records should also include attributes such as pedigree, defect history and improvements over time, potential vulnerabilities, and code propagation within the organization. These records can be best maintained, not by a one-time examination of the organization's code portfolio, but through an ongoing and structured third-party and open source software adoption process. The practice of creating and updating the records automatically as development proceeds ensures ongoing compliance with the requirements of a quality organization.

As opposed to the continuous recordkeeping requirements of a quality process, a software audit is a one-time activity targeted at providing insight into the intellectual property (IP) ownership or IP rights, in anticipation of a transaction such as an M&A or a product shipment to market.

Open source software audits, generally carried out by an external body, involves an examination of a software portfolio in order to detect OSS and third-party code within that portfolio. The result of the audit is a report which highlights open source and third party components and their attributes. At a high level, statistics such as the names of any public-domain software packages and whether they are used in a modified or unmodified format, composition of the license mix, copyrights, vulnerabilities, languages, and open source lines of code are provided. At a more detailed level, specific open source or proprietary packages that were discovered, their license attributes, links to resources that contain additional information, text of the licenses, copyrights, and know security vulnerabilities associated with the components of the software are provided.

An audit process would highlight code that is specifically copyrighted, but for which no license is offered or mentioned. These cases are one of the challenging aspects in establishing IP ownership, as the copyright owner must be contacted for explicit permission to use their code. Also, any code that is not in the public domain and has no identifying information, such as headers, must be highlighted as requiring further investigation.

The Science: Detecting Third-Party Packages in a Portfolio
Once all OSS and other third-party packages are identified and a software Bill of Materials (BoM) is available, then the list can be examined for properties such as licenses, known deficiencies, security vulnerabilities, various obligations associated with their use, and functions such as encryption that could restrict its use in certain markets.

A number of methods can be used to identify open source and commercial software within a software portfolio. A short list of these methods will include the following.

  • Records by developers: Any records maintained by developers and development managers will assist the process.
  • Information held within a file, or folder: A quality-development practice is to include a header on every file that holds information about the software package, organization, copyright and license associated with the file or the package. Often binaries also include identifying information, such as copyright owner, project name, and the license pointers within the file. Another quality practice is to include licensing or other information about a software package within the package.
  • File/folder names and paths: These could be additional indicators of the presence of a known public domain or commercial software.
  • Similarity with public-domain software: Any similarity between a software file, or portions of a software file, and a file in public domain could accurately indicate the presence of OSS in a portfolio. A full-file code similarity to a public domain file would indicate unmodified use of the OSS software. A partial code match would indicate use of OSS in a modified form. This is significant because many open source licenses trigger different obligations based on how the file is used.

There are hundreds of thousands of public-domain projects accessible to developers. When you consider that an OSS project can have multiple versions in the public domain and each package can consist of anything between two and 200,000 files, we gain an appreciation for the task involved in this method. Manual identification of code similarity to millions of files is obviously impractical. Only intelligent automated solutions can go through a software portfolio and examine similarity between each and every file in that portfolio and software files in public domain.

The Art: Reading Between the Lines
The methods described above could theoretically provide insight into composition of a code portfolio. However, those methods alone are not sufficient to reveal an accurate view of the code composition.

  • Manual records are the least reliable method as third-party content is often brought into a project without registering a record. Also, in today's typical development environment it is very difficult to guarantee access to the original developer's piece of software.
  • File header information is not necessarily an accurate representation of the file pedigree and license. These can be changed by a developer, or automatically as in Linux kernel header files that were used in Android packages.
  • Almost all OSS uses OSS. For example, there are more than 65,000 instances of commons.logging (a popular Apache logging layer), and more than 50,000 instances each of Log4j (another Apache logging utility for Java) and JUnit (a popular testing framework for Java) code in various public-domain projects. This leads to OSS project and license nesting complexities and contributes to challenges in correctly identifying the OSS packages within a portfolio. It is critical to detect the genesis OSS project and the version of the original and framing OSS projects. Practical examples of this challenge are:
    • Open source packages that use other OSS but do not maintain or propagate the original OSS license. This action may not be legitimate depending on the original OSS license and the license of the derived OSS package and can lead to erroneous conclusions about the quality as well as usage obligations associated with the organization's software.
    • Open source packages that change the license in subsequent versions such as moving from one version of a license. For example, GPLv2 to GPLv3 on a new release of the OSS project or moving from one license to another compatible license.
    • Projects where the OSS file or folder name is modified. This happens regularly on libraries (those with .jar or .bin extensions), and less frequently on source code files.
    • Seemingly known but non-existent licenses mentioned within a file or folder. A prime example is an OSS package that claims it's released under GPL. There is no GPL, only versioned GPL such as GPL v1, v2 licenses are available.

The art of OSS audit activity and license management relies on a clear understanding of the open source software community, open source packages, open source licenses, and development practices. This understanding comes with both academic knowledge as well as experience in scanning, reviewing, and auditing hundreds of software portfolios. Automated solutions that combine the science of scanning and license management with empirical methods that embody the art of open source package detection and license discovery can significantly speed up the discovery and management process and minimize, although not eliminate, the human involvement factor.

Conclusion
Rapid software development is necessary for sustaining the pace of innovation needed in today's world and the use of OSS is perhaps the best way to maintain this pace. While most organizations are now using open source to their advantage, they must avoid potential complications that OSS license obligations present. The complexity that OSS licenses present makes it almost impossible to manage obligations manually. This is where automated solutions come in. Conducting a one-time audit, or preferably, having a continuous process in place to automatically detect OSS licenses and their obligations is the best way to protect your organization from risk while ensuring continuous innovation.

More Stories By Kamyar Emami

Kamyar Emami has 20+ years of international technology and business experience in transportation, telecommunications, and the oil and gas industries. He is currently the COO of Protecode (www.protecode.com), and oversees the development of the company’s open source license management tools.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, shared some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, a...
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., showed what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He discussed opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and technical point of vie...
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Grow your business with enterprise wearable apps using SAP Platforms and Google Glass. SAP and Google just launched the SAP and Google Glass Challenge, an opportunity for you to innovate and develop the best Enterprise Wearable App using SAP Platforms and Google Glass and gain valuable market exposure. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian McPhail, Senior Director of Business Development, ISVs & Digital Commerce at SAP, outlined the timeline of the SAP Google Glass Challenge and the opportunity for developers, start-ups, and companies of all sizes to engage with SAP today.
DevOps tends to focus on the relationship between Dev and Ops, putting an emphasis on the ops and application infrastructure. But that’s changing with microservices architectures. In her session at DevOps Summit, Lori MacVittie, Evangelist for F5 Networks, will focus on how microservices are changing the underlying architectures needed to scale, secure and deliver applications based on highly distributed (micro) services and why that means an expansion into “the network” for DevOps.
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo – to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY – is now accepting Hackathon proposals. Hackathon sponsorship benefits include general brand exposure and increasing engagement with the developer ecosystem. At Cloud Expo 2014 Silicon Valley, IBM held the Bluemix Developer Playground on November 5 and ElasticBox held the DevOps Hackathon on November 6. Both events took place on the expo floor. The Bluemix Developer Playground, for developers of all levels, highlighted the ease of use of...
We’re no longer looking to the future for the IoT wave. It’s no longer a distant dream but a reality that has arrived. It’s now time to make sure the industry is in alignment to meet the IoT growing pains – cooperate and collaborate as well as innovate. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, will examine the key ingredients to IoT success and identify solutions to challenges the industry is facing. The deep industry expertise behind this presentation will provide attendees with a leading edge view of rapidly emerging IoT oppor...
For years, we’ve relied too heavily on individual network functions or simplistic cloud controllers. However, they are no longer enough for today’s modern cloud data center. Businesses need a comprehensive platform architecture in order to deliver a complete networking suite for IoT environment based on OpenStack. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dhiraj Sehgal from PLUMgrid will discuss what a holistic networking solution should really entail, and how to build a complete platform that is scalable, secure, agile and automated.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built to optimize Microsoft workloads, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Gridstore™ is the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built for Microsoft workloads and designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Gridstore’s hyper-converged infrastructure is the industry’s first all flash version of HyperConverged Appliances that include both compute and storag...
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
Hadoop as a Service (as offered by handful of niche vendors now) is a cloud computing solution that makes medium and large-scale data processing accessible, easy, fast and inexpensive. In his session at Big Data Expo, Kumar Ramamurthy, Vice President and Chief Technologist, EIM & Big Data, at Virtusa, will discuss how this is achieved by eliminating the operational challenges of running Hadoop, so one can focus on business growth. The fragmented Hadoop distribution world and various PaaS solutions that provide a Hadoop flavor either make choices for customers very flexible in the name of opti...
In the consumer IoT, everything is new, and the IT world of bits and bytes holds sway. But industrial and commercial realms encompass operational technology (OT) that has been around for 25 or 50 years. This grittier, pre-IP, more hands-on world has much to gain from Industrial IoT (IIoT) applications and principles. But adding sensors and wireless connectivity won’t work in environments that demand unwavering reliability and performance. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ron Sege, CEO of Echelon, will discuss how as enterprise IT embraces other IoT-related technology trends, enterprises with i...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal an...
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have s...
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo, June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jeff Kaplan, Managing Director of THINKstrategies, will examine why IT must finally fulfill its role in support of its SBUs or face a new round of...
One of the biggest challenges when developing connected devices is identifying user value and delivering it through successful user experiences. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Mike Kuniavsky, Principal Scientist, Innovation Services at PARC, described an IoT-specific approach to user experience design that combines approaches from interaction design, industrial design and service design to create experiences that go beyond simple connected gadgets to create lasting, multi-device experiences grounded in people's real needs and desires.
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT.